Electric vehicles produce no tailpipe emissions and rely on regenerative braking to reduce energy use. This makes them less expensive to operate than traditional cars, and some also feature advanced driver-assistance technology as standard or available options.운전연수
An EV’s fuel efficiency is reported as miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (MPGe), similar to the MPG rating for gas-powered cars. Getting familiar with what makes an EV tick is essential to understanding whether it’s right for you.
Battery technology is a key component of electric cars, and companies are racing to develo 운전연수 p better, cheaper batteries. EVs need batteries to power their motors and electronics, as well as store energy for driving. They also serve as structural components, and lighter, more efficient batteries could make EVs lighter than conventional vehicles.
Many EVs use lithium-ion batteries, which degrade over time and with repeated discharge/charge cycles. The degradation reduces the battery’s ability to deliver power. However, most EV drivers do not drive their vehicles to the point of running out of power, so degradation is a relatively minor concern.
The batteries in EVs contain different variations of the lithium-ion chemistry. Some batteries use a nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) blend, while others use a nickel-manganese-cobalt-aluminum (NMCA) blend. The former is less expensive, but it has a higher risk of fire than the latter. Battery engineers spend a lot of time monitoring batteries during production and in use to avoid degradation.
Scientists are developing solid-state battery technology that uses a silicon cathode instead of a liquid one. This will increase the battery’s energy density and charging sp 운전연수 eed, but it is several years away from being ready for mass manufacturing. The technology may be used in EVs, domestic airplanes, and long-haul trucks. It may also eliminate the safety risks associated with lithium-ion batteries, which can overheat and catch fire.
When it comes to charging an EV, the type of charger used has a big impact on how long it will take for the battery to recharge. The different types of chargers are designed with different outputs and varying speeds. In addition, the amount of charge in the car also impacts how long it takes to charge.
Most EVs come with Level 1 chargers that plug into a standard 120-volt outlet. Typically, it takes about 20 hours for the charger to slow-charge a car’s batteries. This is a popular option for EV drivers who do most of their charging at home.
Another option for EV drivers is to use a public charging station. These stations are found in places like restaurants, shopping malls, and department stores. Some are free, while others are pay-as-you-go or subscription-based. Moreover, the prices are based on the kWh used by a vehicle.
However, it’s not always possible to find a public charging station nearby. These stations can be expensive, and they require a high power output (480 volts and 400 amps). This isn’t something that utility companies can easily add to homes in residential neighborhoods. That’s why you’re more likely to see these fast charging stations along highways and in some public parking lots.
The biggest difference between EVs and traditional gasoline-powered vehicles is the absence of an internal combustion engine. That means EVs typically require less maintenance. You still need to replace cabin air filters, wiper blades, tires and other standard parts like those on a gas car. However, because EVs have different propulsion systems, they also require some unique maintenance items.
For example, EVs use a special type of coolant that must be replaced every six years. This isn’t as simple as draining the old stuff and refilling with a new jug from Auto Zone. It requires specialized tools and the correct low-conductivity coolant that only an authorized dealer can sell.
Another important item to consider is that EV brake pads will need replacement more often than those in a traditional car. That’s because EVs generally use something called regenerative braking. Regenerative braking converts some of the car’s kinetic energy into heat and uses it to help slow or stop the vehicle.
EVs can also experience uneven tire wear that may require wheel alignment. They’ll also need to have their battery packs checked and serviced. CR’s Harto says the batteries in some of the latest EV models are designed to last for the lifetime of the car, but they won’t be bulletproof.
Electric cars may be more expensive to buy than gas-powered models, but the gap is shrinking year by year. Plus, most of today’s EVs qualify for federal, state, local and utility buying incentives that help ease the initial sticker shock.
Moreover, electricity is cheaper than gasoline in most parts of the country, so owners of an electric car often spend less on fuel than those driving a conventional vehicle. In fact, AAA estimates that drivers who cover 15,000 miles a year in an EV spend about $546 on power (electricity), or $0.03 per mile, compared to $1,255 for small sedan owners and more than $2,000 for owners of small SUVs and half-ton pickups.
The cost of an EV can also vary based on the specific model, options and range you choose. Longer-range EVs tend to cost more, as do vehicles with more bells and whistles. Also, the price of raw materials has been rising steadily, which can indirectly affect EV prices.
Fortunately, many buyers can save money on their EV up-front by obtaining a low-rate auto loan or leasing, securing the federal EV tax credit worth up to $7,500 and installing Level 2 home charging stations at an early stage. These can add up to significant savings that make EV ownership more affordable than a gas-powered vehicle over the long haul.